# 16.05 Formula Column Syntax

Formula columns are derived from user-defined formulas. Users create these formulas by combining columns (fields) available in the report.

### When might I need to create a custom column?

Custom columns are useful for creating such numeric fields as:
• Values with non-standardized modes of calculation that are therefore not included in UNItekTIME as default columns (for example, overhead cost etc)
• Calculations specific to your organization
• Highly-specialized calculations

### Numeric Formula Examples:

• A formula for 10% Overhead cost in the [Detail Timesheet Report]: (Amount * 10 / 100)
• A formula for calculating profit margin in the [Detail Timesheet Report]. (BillingRate – EmployeeRate) * TotalHours

### Text Formula Examples:

• To identify the location and their departments in a single field, you could combine both location and department by creating a formula like this: (AccountLocation+’-’ DepartmentName)

### Numeric Operators:

OperatorUse this operator to specify…
-Subtraction

Multiplication
/Division
( … )Parentheses
=Two values are equal
<Less than
>Greater than
<=Less than or equal
>=Greater than or equal
!=Not equal
%Modulus
Operators follow standard order of operations rules. For example:
• 2 + 2 * 2 = 6, but (2 + 2) * 2 = 8
• 2 + 2 / 2 = 3, but (2 + 2) / 2 = 2

### Functions:

FunctionsDescriptionSyntaxExample
IIFGets one of two values depending on the result of a logical expressionIif ( expr, truepart, falsepart )Iif (billingrate>500,‘expensive’,‘dear’ )
LENGets the length of a stringLEN ( expression )Len (EmployeeName)
CONVERTConverts particular value to a specified .NET Framework Type.Convert(expression, type)Convert(total, ‘System.Int32’), Convert(id,‘System.String’)
SUBSTRINGGets a sub-string of a specified length, starting at a specified point in the string.SUBSTRING (expression, start, length )SUBSTRING ( phone, 7, 8 )